Is Athens Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.92

Athens tap water is safe to drink. What do we expect from the capital city of Greece? Most locals drink water directly from the tap. The taste may depend on your location and may differ from other European countries.

Athens tap water
Parthenon – Athens, Greece

Hotels will warn you if the water is not suitable for consumption. If you worry too much about the taste, bottled water is cheaper in the supermarket. And most restaurants do serve both bottled water and tap water.

Please be cautious that small towns and islands in Greece tap water’s are probably unsafe. Most of the islands get their drinking water from the mainland. The water of the isle is only good for bathing and cleaning.

Source of Water in Athens, Greece

Athens tap water primary source comes from surface water. Another source supplied by boreholes to reach groundwater.

The Lake Marathon and Lake Yliki are the two surface water supplying the capital. Lake Marathon, located close to the city, has a capacity of 41 million cubic meters and tapped through the Boyati tunnel. And Lake Yliki is located 60 km northwest of Athens has a capacity of 590 million cubic meters. Another source is the Mornos reservoir has a capacity of 780 million cubic meters and Evinos reservoir with a capacity of 140 million cubic meters. Both reservoirs water tapped through tunnels.

Due to lack of rainfall during the 90s the city used a backup water supply. The 105 boreholes in three wellfields are used during an emergency.

The local supplies managed by EYDAP, a merged of incumbent water supplier in Athens and Piraeus(Hellenic Water Company and Greater Athens Sewerage Organization).



Some of the Convenience Stores in Athens

OK Any Time Market
OK Any Time Market
  • Dongfang Chinese Minimarket
  • Ok! Anytime Markets
  • Little Corner
  • The Grocery Store
  • myKiOSK
  • 24 Shopen
  • Polski sklep – sami swoi
  • Your Mini Market
  • Green Life

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


Other useful links:

Is Berlin Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.82

The tap water in Berlin is safe! No surprise there, because water is the most examined food product in Germany. Although there are differences in water from region to region, it is commonly very high quality. There is generally no need to buy and drink bottled water. It is advised and even promoted, to fill reusable water bottles with tap water instead of buying plastic bottles.

Berlin Tap Water
Supreme Parish and Collegiate Church

During World Water Day on March 22, 2018, Berlin became part of the Blue Community, an initiative that is “dedicated to treating water as a human right and not as a commodity.” As part of this commitment, the Berlin Senate allotted 1 Million Euros to the Berliner Wasserbetriebe to increase the total number of drinking fountains in Berlin.

Bottled water consumption in Germany is surprisingly high. In some regions around Germany, tap water may taste awful, and some are worried about contaminated water due to old piping systems in their household or building. Usually, the taste is affected by the “hardness” of the water. While softer water tastes great almost everywhere, harder water ordinarily tastes better cold. Fun Fact: Tea drinkers often prefer soft water. Another concern with hard water is that it usually needs more chlorine to purify it as it sometimes contains high amounts of limescale.

Source of Water in Berlin, Germany

The main source of tap water in Berlin is groundwater and is not collected directly from the river or any of the lakes. Groundwater is originally surface water that has seeped deep into the soil and has been filtered by many layers of sand and soil. The local water supplier pumps groundwater and transfers it to the nearest reservoir. The water is then treated at the local treatment plant. In this process, the water quality is checked repeatedly, even before it is pumped from the ground. Follow this link to review testing results: Berlin water supplier. Search for your location by postal code.

You don’t need to worry about using or drinking tap water, as it posed absolutely no risk to humans. Berliner Wasserbetriebe has sophisticated wastewater treatment, vast water conservation areas in the city, and many soil layers – land with many soil layers with naturally clean the water, ensuring good groundwater quality.



Some of the Convenience Stores in Berlin

Eberty Point Convenience Store
Eberty Point Convenience Store
  • Hub Convenience
  • Polats Minimarkt
  • Spät Kauf 7Days shop
  • Ela Spätkauf
  • Das Unikat
  • Drink Shop
  • SPAR express
  • Eberty Point
  • Späti Raumer 6
  • Schnäppchenprinz
  • SPIFF24
  • Late Shop

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


Other links:

Is Kiev Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?-
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.82

The tap water in Kiev, Ukraine is safe for drinking. But as always, tap water may differ in every region. Some locals will drink tap water in Kyiv/Kiev, and others choose to boil the water for about 5 minutes, and you may find water filters in their homes. In most Ukrainian cities, drinking tap water is not harmful. In Kiev, water is hard, and chlorinated, because of the treatment process. This is one of the reasons some prefer bottled water or purified water; better taste. According to Ukrainians, the water standard here is slightly stricter than EU standards.

Kiev Tap Water
St. Michael’s Golden-Domed Monaster

If you prefer bottled water, you can purchase it from any supermarket or convenience store. If you’d like even more convenience, you can order water online and have it delivered to your place. One of the biggest supermarkets in Ukraine is METRO. You can place an order on their website and choose the delivery time or schedule a delivery.

Source of Water in Kyiv, Ukraine

The primary source of water in Kyiv is surface water. Another source is groundwater. Most of the surface water used in Kyiv comes from the Dnieper and Desna rivers, and according to tested sample results, the water from these rivers is nontoxic. During spring, the two river samples brought showed relative decreases in lettuce root length (by 35%, p < 0.001), where the Desna River sample had a lower number of (by 79.1%, p < 0.001) microalga cells.

Locally known as the Kyiv Sea, this vast reservoir is found on the Dnieper River in Ukraine. Between 1960-1966, the Kyiv Hydroelectric Power Plant dam, which fills the Kiev Sea, was being built at Vyshhorod. The main uses of this reservoir are for hydroelectricity generation, industrial and public consumption, and irrigation.



Some of the Convenience Stores in Kiev

Buta Convenience Stores
Buta Convenience Stores, Kyiv
  • METRO Cash & Carry
  • Mega Market
  • Silpo
  • Billa
  • Shell
  • Velyka Kyshenya Ekspres
  • Мини Маркет
  • Starokiyevskiy
  • Oleksandrivsʹkyy
  • Pchiyolka
  • WOG
  • Lotok
  • Market Plus
  • Buta

Estimated Price of Bottled Water

1.5-liter ₴12.87$0.52€0.47£0.40

Other links:

Is Milan Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.45

In Milan, Italy, tap water is safe to drink. Nevertheless, there have been some complaints about leeching pipes from residents living in old buildings. The contaminants that are most likely to be found in Milan’s water supply are lead, heavy metals, microplastics, and chlorine by-products. Fortunately, only certain regions of Milan will be affected by these contaminants. Before drinking tap water, it is essential to ask ex-pats staying near you about their experience.

Source of Water in Milan, Italy

Milan Tap Water

Drinking water in Milan comes from 433 wells around the city. However, other cities in Italy source their water from rivers around the country.

A yearly fifty-eight billion cubic meters of water resources is required in Milan, of which 72% comes from surface water and 28% from groundwater. About 70% of the underground resources are in the flood plains of northern Italy. On the other hand, groundwater is in southern Italy along the short stretches of coastal lowlands and in a few inland areas.

The Vedovelle Fountains

Drinking Fountain
Bronze Fountain

The Vedovelle is the typical dark green cast-iron public drinking fountain in Milan. The water fountains are about one and a half meters high and fifty centimeters wide. A dragon’s head emerges from a rectangular base adorned with the municipality of Milan design and topped with a pinion.

The strange name given to the drinking fountains originates from the sound of the endless stream of water. There are about 400 functioning fountains dispersed throughout the municipality of Milan. The website has a map of all the locations where these fountains can be found.

The oldest Vedovella is in the bronze structure located in Piazza Della Scala. Architect Luca Beltrami was inspired by the gargoyles on the side of the Duomo and designed the huge rainwater drains in the shape of scary monsters.



Some of the Convenience Stores in Milan

 Euro Zone Market
Euro Zone Market
  • Enoteca El Vinatt dal 1964
  • Vivafruit S.R.L.
  • Mini Market Il Negozio Sotto Casa
  • Stendhal’s Mini market
  • Gran Market – Ok Sigma
  • Lino Market
  • La Bottega Simply
  • Semprebio – emporio&ristoro – Cuorebio
  • Market Girasole
  • Euro Zone Market

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


Other sources:

Is Prague Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.55

Yes, tap water in Prague, Czech Republic is safe to drink. There is no need to worry about the effects of drinking tap water on your health. Usually, you will see drinking fountains in the streets and parks. Feel free to refill your bottles here! In case these sources aren’t safe to drink such, a notice will be displayed by the city.

Prague Tap Water
St. Vitus’ Cathedral

Prague is recognized as having high-quality water; therefore, we consider the water from the tap safe enough to be used for cooking, washing, and drinking. Bottled water in Prague comes in three styles: sparkling, lightly bubbled and still (without bubbles).

Regulations of drinking water quality are in accordance with Decree No. 252/2004 Code which establishes requirements for drinking water quality and frequencies of the drinking water control. The amended Decree No. 187/2005 Code has been valid since 1, June 2005.

Source of Water in Prague, Czech Republic

Some of the tap water that is used in Prague comes from groundwater sources near sand-gravel strata and artesian wells. Another source of water is surface water from the Jizera River, Želivka River, and Vltava River.

The Prague administrator of water management property is the Pražská Vodohospodářská Společnost a.s. They are responsible for keeping the water supply and sewerage system in excellent condition and are responsible for its continued development.

Investment projects, including reconstructions of the main pipelines and the sewerage system, ensure a sophisticated evolution of this infrastructure for owners of the water management foundation. Ongoing projects in wastewater management are also fundamental to healthy and clean drinking water.



Some of the Convenience Stores in Prague

Pont Market
Pont Market
  • Pont Market
  • Večerka Na Dolinách
  • Žabka
  • Nonstop minimarket
  • Bio Market
  • Vietnamese grocery
  • AIDA minimarket
  • Market H and Q
  • Potraviny
  • AZA Non-Stop mini market
  • Levné potraviny

Estimated Price of Bottled Water

1.5-liter Kč12.83$0.55€0.50£0.44

Other Sources:

Is Warsaw Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.50

The government in Poland guarantees that the tap water quality in Warsaw is safe to drink. Despite this guarantee, many Poles and tourists use bottled water, especially mineral water, instead of tap water. It is believed that one of the reasons people distrust tap water is because of the influence that the privatized water industry has in Poland. Ad campaigns that promote the quality of bottled mineral water over soft tap water are likely contributing to the public stigma against tap water.

Warsaw Tap Water
Warsaw Fountain Park

Water companies operating in Poland are required to comply with standards adopted from European Union (EU) regulations. The most significant directive is the Water Framework Directive (WFD) which changed the water cleanliness evaluation system that had been used in Poland since 1970. The new system’s objectives are to preserve the Biological, Hydro-morphological (i.e. river bank structure and river continuity) and Chemical quality of ALL ground and surface water. This guarantees that any water meant for consumption must not, even potentially, pose a danger to human health. The directive also sets the general standard of acceptable concentrations of harmful substances in the human body.

Source of Water in Warsaw, Poland

Vistula River
Vistula River

Less than 1% of Warsaw’s water comes from groundwater sources (mainly for a few of the smaller outer-lying municipalities). Most of Warsaw’s water comes from the Vistula River and is retained in the Zegrze Reservoir. The Zegrze Reservoir, or Zegrze Lake, is a man-made reservoir that was built in Poland in 1963. The dam utilizes hydroelectric power to produce 20 Megawatts of energy.

There are three water supply systems that serve Warsaw residents. Central Water Main, developed in the 19th century, is the oldest. Though it has undergone numerous restorations, it continues to operate and currently provides water for more than half of all Warsaw residents. The other two supply systems are Praga Water Main and Northern Water Main.



Some of the Convenience Stores in Warsaw

Zabka Convenience Store
Zabka Convenience Store
  • Carrefour Express
  • Żabka
  • Fresh Market
  • Delikatesy Centrum
  • Żabeusz Buy & Cry
  • Shell
  • Sklep osiedlowy
  • Inmedio Trendy
  • hubiz
  • BP
  • Kolporter
  • Lewiatan

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


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Is Istanbul Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.36

Is tap water safe to drink in Istanbul, Turkey? Yes, it is safe to drink. Tap water is pretreated in water treatment facilities by the ISKI (Water authority of Istanbul) and drinkable but:

Old pipelines and water tanks in buildings can cause water contamination. That is out of ISKI control. To avoid contamination, there is a trace amount of free chloride within the water, which is difficult to notice. Due to chloride and long retention time in pipe, the water in Istanbul may not taste and smell as good as soft natural water. Locals have a very delicate taste and prefer not to drink tap water. However, it is safe to say that tap water in Istanbul is safe and clean potable water.


If you are concerned with your health, we recommend buying bottled water. Especially if you have a sensitive stomach.

Source of Water in Istanbul, Turkey

Almost all of Istanbul’s drinking water (97%) comes from surface water collected from: 

  • Omerli-Darlik system – on the Asian side  
  • Terkos-Alibeykoy system – on the European side. 

Both consist of dams, reservoirs, water treatment plants, and pipelines.

Istanbul Tap Water
Water Treatment Plant

Reservoirs that supply Istanbul are located within the metropolitan area. They are exposed to pollution from settlements without adequate sanitation. Conservation zones around the reservoirs control water quality. Within these conservation zones, construction and industrial activity are limited by four concentric buffer zones with increasingly strict ordinances the closer the zones are to the reservoirs. Despite this, there is little implementation of these regulations in the face of rapid and often unplanned urbanization. Illegal settlements have sprung up around the reservoirs and were legalized by their municipal administrations elected mayors.



Some of the Convenience Stores in Istanbul

Istanbul Mini Market
Istanbul Mini Market
  • Köşem Grocery Shop
  • Topagaci Kasabi
  • Dilek Gida
  • Doğanlar Mini Market
  • Peynirci Baba
  • Petrol Ofisi Market
  • Özdil Tekel
  • Levent Tekel Shop
  • Novi Pazar Gourmet
  • Gilo Market
  • İndigo Tekel Şarküteri
  • Ak Gida
  • Ekomini
  • Istanbul Mini Market

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


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Is Paris Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.97

The answer is Yes, you can drink the tap water in Paris, France! Most Parisians are completely comfortable drinking and using the water every day.

If you are out for dinner, you may request a “caraffe d’eau” instead of bottled water, which can be expensive. The waiter will serve you a pitcher of tap water that is safe to drink. Perhaps you’ll notice a faint chloral smell or taste but don’t worry about it, it is clean and safe!

Locals suggest that you bring your bottle and use the publicly available water sources. Paris has many fountains that provide free freshwater; these provide a great alternative for those who want to avoid plastic waste or save money on buying water.

Source of Water in Paris, France

Paris Tap Water
River Seine, Eiffel Tower

Half of the drinking water needs in Paris and regions come from the Seine. The other half comes from aquifers and aqueducts.

The drinking water system is supplied mainly by reservoirs located at sites around Paris. The areas of distribution can vary from time to time because of certain constraints in the production process.

  • The Montsouris reservoir – (203,000 m³) supplies Paris with water from the Vanne and Loing aqueducts.
  • The Ménilmontant and Lilas reservoirs, the Belleville and Montmartre reservoirs and tanksHay-les-Roses – (300,000 m³) supplies Paris with water from the Joinville plant and the reservoir (229,000 m3) supplies water from the Orly plant.
  • The Saint-Cloud reservoir – (355,000 m³) supplies water from the Avre aqueduct.



Some of the Convenience Stores in Paris

VT Cash & Carry
VT Cash & Carry
  • Supérette Beaumarchais
  • Proxi
  • Le Petit Casino
  • Cocci Market
  • M&S Food Châtelet les Halles
  • Space Market
  • Épicerie Libre Service
  • Hana Food
  • Paris Store
  • Casino shop
  • Monop’
  • Grocer’s Shop chez Sami
  • Auchan
  • Karas Market
  • D’Accord

Estimated Price of Bottled Water

1.5-liter €0.87$0.97 £0.80

Other Sources:

Is Vienna Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.65

It is safe to drink tap water in Vienna, Austria. The tap water quality in Vienna exceeds the federal health-based drinking water standards. Vienna’s water runs from the mountain springs in the Styrian/Lower Austrian Alps and reaches the Austrian capital city 36 hours later, without pumps and under the strictest regulations.

Vienna Tap Water
Saint Stephans Cathedral, Vienna

In some parts, you may see warnings that the water is undrinkable (“Kein Trinkwasser”), or signs with a crossed-out glass of water. It is important to always take note of these signs!

When exploring the city, you may find drinking fountains that are labeled with “Trinkwasser” (drinking water). The municipality has about 1000 drinking fountains that can be found everywhere, like in parks and in markets.

Source of Water in Vienna, Austria

Vienna’s tap water originates in the Lower Austrian-Styrian Alps. The First Vienna Spring Water main is supplied by the mountains Schneeberg, Rax, and Schneealpe. The second spring water main is supplied by the Hochschwab Massif. Something close to a full circle was built by tapping the Pfannbauern Spring located in the eastern foothills of the Hochschwab Massif and feeding it into the First Vienna Spring Water Main. The two spring zones cover 675 square kilometers.

Vienna sees itself in the unusual situation of covering almost all its drinking water needs from mountain springs and only obtaining a small portion from groundwater. As a result, Vienna uses groundwater only when the Spring Water Central requires repairs due to severe pipeline damage, or if there is remarkably high water consumption during hot spells.



Some of the Convenience Stores in Vienna (Wien)

OKAY Convenience Store
OKAY Convenience Store
  • Okay
  • Firat GesmbH
  • Günter`s Laden
  • Bernhart & Stix Bauernladen KG
  • denn’s Biomarkt
  • Shell
  • Bobbys (Englische Lebensmittel)
  • BP
  • INDOPAK Trading GmbH
  • Julius Meinl am Graben
  • Lili Markt
  • Nakwon Supermarket
  • Toko Sederhana
  • Padani Kosher Shop

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


Other sources:

Is Budapest Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.39

Can you drink tap water in Budapest Hungary? The answer is yes. They have an authority that monitors the quality of tap water.

Source of Water in Budapest, Hungary

Budapest Waterworks deliver fresh and healthy drinking water for over 2 million people in Budapest. Long pipeline systems connect wells on Csepel Island, Margaret Island, Szentendre Island, and the left and right banks of the Danube with the taps in people’s homes and workplaces.

The wells in Hungary can produce 1 million cubic meters of water every day, which is more than the people of Budapest use on an ordinary day. Despite water abundance, the protection and preservation of water throughout Hungary is a high priority.

Budapest Tap Water
Buda Castle, Budapest

Budapest Waterworks provides high-quality water to the residents of Budapest and many surrounding settlements. Laboratories analyze approximately 11,000 water samples per year and assess the quality of the water-based on the following characteristics:

  • physical
  • chemical
  • microbiological
  • bacteriological
  • radiological

The results show that the quality of the Budapest drinking water meets the relevant Hungarian standards and the European Union regulations.

How is The Water Disinfected?

Before the drinking water enters the pipeline, it is disinfected with chlorine gas via continuously operating chlorine dispensers. In the case of wells, pools, water towers, and pipeline sections, “hypo” (Sodium hypochlorite) is used to disinfect the water.

Do they add a lot of disinfectant to the water? The amount of disinfectant added to the water does not pose a public health problem. At present, the measurable residual chlorine content is 0.2 mg / l, which is within range of the recommendation of the health authority. This amount changes when the quality of the water supplied is adversely affected by floods or pipe breaks.

Water Hardiness

The taste of drinking water is impacted by the hardness of the drinking water. The hardness of water is determined by the concentration of calcium oxide (CaO) in one liter of water. According to measurements taken in the capital, the water in Budapest can be classified as medium-hard water. It is essential to know that the harder the water, the better it tastes. It is true, however, that harder water is less efficient for washing because washing machines do not operate well with water that contains high levels of minerals. On most of the packaging for detergent powders, the ideal water hardness is given in so-called German Hardness (NK).

The average hardness of the drinking water in the Budapest area is 148 mg / l CaO.



Some of the Convenience Stores in Budapest

Roni ABC Convenience Store
Roni ABC Convenience Store
  • The British Store
  • Roni ABC
  • Coop Mini – Dínó Csemege
  • Vietnámi zöldséges
  • Golden Store Kft.
  • Metaxa Mini Market
  • Húsbolt
  • Vitatéka Élelmiszer
  • ABC 0-24
  • Kertész Csemegéje

Bottled Water Estimated Price


Other Information:


Tap Water Safety in Europe (Continent)

Europe, public drinking water are mostly safe. In the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region, more than 63 million people got access to drinking-water services and 84 million people to sanitation services between 2000 and 2017. Although over 16 million people still need access to basic drinking water, and more than 31 million people are in lack basic sanitation. Notable inequalities continue between rural and urban areas, and among rich and poor people, with rural residents and the poorest being the most disadvantaged.

Is Athens Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Berlin Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Kiev Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Milan Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Prague Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Warsaw Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Istanbul Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Paris Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Vienna Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Budapest Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Tap Water Safety in Europe (Continent)

Is Moscow Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Krakow Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Copenhagen Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Barcelona Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Sofia Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Bucharest Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Brussels Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Venice Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is London Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Zurich Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Dublin Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Amsterdam Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Source link:

Is Moscow Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.68

Moscow Russia, tap water is safe for drinking. Treatment plants use sodium hypochlorite, which is more reliable than chlorine. A regular inspection ensures people who drink it won’t be ill. The water leaves the treatment plant is safe to drink. However, locals tend to boil water before drinking. Nowadays, many Russian drinks filtered water. Their concerns will be the residential pipeline in the place they live or stay.

Moscow Tap Water
The Moscow Kremlin

The Mosvodokanal(Water services company), the state group that monitors the drinking water in Moscow, confirms that water is clean. The company produces high-quality drinking water and a safe sewage system to 14.2 million inhabitants of the Moscow capital. Also, according to specialists, tap water in Moscow meets all the requirements that have been recommended by Russia’s chief state sanitary inspector. They deny many stories created by the various aqua filters. But if you have a sensitive stomach as tourists, we advise that you only consume bottled water.

Source of Water in Moscow, Russia

Tap water from Moscow, Russia, comes from surface water and groundwater. The three primary sources originate from the Moskva river, Volga river, and Vazuzskoye Hydrotechnical System.

The Moskva river supplies up to 60% of the capital needs of water. While the Volga river provides 40% of the water supply in Moscow, the Vazuzskoye serve as a reserve source incase of water crisis or contamination on the two prime surface water source.

Treatment and sanitation start with coagulation. This method includes the addition of compounds that improve the clumping of fines into larger floc so that they can easily separate from the water. Then they exposed water to UV light that known to kill bacteria and now will pass through water filtration of sand a natural way to filter water without chemical compounds.



Some of the Convenience Stores in Moscow

  • Eliseyevskiy
  • Daily Food
  • Pyaterochka
  • Mini Market
  • EUROSPAR Express
  • Food Market
  • АВ Daily
  • briskly
  • Planeta Vkusa
  • Indiyskiye Spetsii
  • Alyye Parusa
  • Гастроном № 1
  • Мой Ашан

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


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Is Krakow Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?-
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.52

Krakow Poland, tap water is safe for drinking. The quality is exceptional but hard. You can wash, clean food, brush your teeth using tap water.

Krakow Tap Water
Krakow, Poland

The European Co-operation Benchmarking a water service recently issued a report which proves that the water in the city is of the highest quality. A related table showing the results of research on water supply organizations from different countries is accessible on their website.

Most tourists prefer bottled water because of water hardiness, but perfectly safe. High mineral content can change the taste of water. Most hard waters have high calcium and magnesium dissolved in water. You may also boil the water to soften the water’s taste. But still, this is not recommended because it impoverishes its mineral composition.

Source of Tap Water in Krakow, Poland

Tap Water from Krakow came from surface water. They have four primary sources of surface water. And the essential source the Dobczyckie Lake reservoir, which supplies half of the city’s drinking water. This reservoir was constructed 30 kilometers south of Krakow on the Raba River in 1986. The remaining three sources are on the Sanka River in Bielany, on the Dlubnia River and Rudawa River. Surface water sources are strictly observed to avoid unusual types or levels of microbial/disease-causing contaminants.

Another source is groundwater in Mistrzejowice. One of the districts in Krakow located in the northern part of the city.

Strict monitoring of surface water done to avoid unexpected types or levels of disease-causing contaminants. Ensuring that water quality follows and passed the European standard for drinking water.



Some of the Convenience Stores in Krakow

Zabka Convenience Store
Zabka Convenience Store
  • Żabka Estimated Price of Bottled Water
  • Kocyk
  • Kanpol
  • Spar
  • Carrefour Express
  • Jubilat
  • Odido
  • Relay
  • Shell
  • BP
  • MExpress
  • Szczypiorek Market
  • Witaminka
  • Biedronka
  • FL-51

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


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Is Copenhagen Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$1.18

The tap water in Copenhagen, Denmark, is safe to drink. The water is fresh and cheaper with great taste. You are free to use it for washing and brushing. Water goes through a strict daily quality controls. Rest assured, it is safe to drink without adding chlorine or other chemicals.

Copenhagen Tap Water
Tivoli Gardens

The Danish Ministry of the Environment trying to convince people to switch to tap water instead of bottled water. In general, Denmark’s water one of the most environmentally friendly in the world and much cheaper than bottled water from a supermarket.

The City of Copenhagen set up more than 60 drinking fountains all over the metropolis to decrease CO2 emissions generated by the production of bottled water. Locals and tourists can enjoy the fresh, high-quality tap water for free. Copenhagen intends to be the first CO2-neutral capital in the world in 2025. Drinking fountains are one of the ways to accomplish a challenging goal.

Source of Water in Copenhagen, Denmark

Copenhagen, Denmark’s primary water source, came from the absorption of groundwater from the chalk aquifer. The groundwater quality from these deep aquifers is generally high. It takes 40-60 years for the water to penetrate down to the aquifer — an estimated resource of 1,800 million m³ groundwater per year. About one-third of the water is used by households, one third by agriculture, market gardens, and another one third used by industry and institutions. Some businesses buy water from the public network, while others draw their water.

The European Environment and Health Committee found zero microbial failed rate of measurement on E. coli on the extensive water supply system. Colossal water supply plants have microbiological failures during a very occasionally limited period.



Some of the Convenience Stores in Copenhagen

Elite Convenience Stores
Elite Convenience Stores
  • 7-Eleven
  • Kiosk Vesterbrogade
  • Maria’s Kiosk
  • Døgneren v/Nazia Hussain
  • Elite
  • Dalgas Kiosk 162
  • Ns Købmand
  • Rosa Kiosk
  • Stop´n Shop
  • Julia’s Kiosk
  • Shell Select
  • Centerkiosken
  • Dhadra Food Store

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


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Is Barcelona Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.74

Can you drink tap water in Barcelona, SpainYes, drinking tap water in Barcelona is safe! According to the Ministry of Health and Aigües de Barcelona, the tap water meets all international standards. Barcelona’s water also passes all water regulations.

W.H.O. Water Sanitation and Health Links

Download PDF file.

Above all, many choose to drink bottled water. Barcelona’s tap water is safe and clean. High chlorine levels influence the taste and smell of the water. The main reason is because of Barcelona’s position along the Mediterranean Sea. Using more chlorine prevents the mineral content found in stones runs across the coast.

Source of Water in Barcelona, Spain

Barcelona Tap Water
Barcelona Tap

We should consider the water source to determine the water quality of the city. Tap water in Barcelona came from the Ter and the Llobregat river. The Llobregat provides the town with the majority of its water. The water from the river has high levels of minerals, like potassium and magnesium.

The river crosses into a very salty region northwest of Barcelona near the town of Súria. As a result, the water from the Llobregat tastes better in areas before reaching Súria. Later, it gets salty. The source can only handle 20% of the city’s water needs and are very costly to operate. 

The osmosis system somewhat eliminates the salty taste. Also, the high levels of chlorine used to protect it from contamination.



Some of the Convenience Stores in Barcelona

Unió 11 Convenience stores
Unió 11
  • Consigmar
  • Supermarket
  • Pampa Drugstore
  • Casa Ruiz Granel Selecto Barcelona-Eixample E
  • Marítima Dávila Barcelona
  • Supermercat Express
  • Best Barcelona Shopping S L
  • Basar Amic
  • Unió 11

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Is Sofia Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.55

The tap water in Sofia, Bulgaria is of high quality and safe to drink. Some reports point out Sofia as the city with the best drinking water in Bulgaria and beyond. The results of the analysis prove that water and wastewater quality evaluation and control in Sofia, Bulgaria are delivered according to the legislation by the European Union.

Sofia Tap Water
Largo in Sofia

In a few older communities and buildings, particularly in the city center, may experience tap water with red to brown color due to aged pipes and common for water coming out of hot water pipes. The water clears typically after running for a short time.

The rusty color is produced by iron particles that break free from rotted iron or steel pipes. Though rusty water may look or taste unpleasant, it is not a health concern and has no adverse health effects.

Source of Water in Sofia, Bulgaria

Tap water in Sofia comes from the drainage basin in the alpine terrains of Rila Mountain about 80 kilometers south of the City. Then water is gathered in the Iskar Dam that provides 80% of the City’s drinking water. The other 20% supplied by Beli Iskar Dam at a higher altitude. The water passes through several water purification plants before reaching your home or valve.

The Kubratovo Wastewater Treatment Plant run by Sofiyska Voda was recognized by the Water and Energy Exchange (WEX) Global Summit 2018 for innovation in water and wastewater management. On the 14 March, and the evening of World Water Day, they held the 6th annual WEX Global Innovation Awards 2018 at Lisbon Portugal. Sofia Wastewater Treatment Plant in Kubratovo received an award for its vital contribution to the water supply and sewerage sector.



Some of the Convenience Stores in Sofia

  • Dar
  • Astra 97
  • Beryozka Bulgaria
  • Fantastico
  • Farm Charm
  • Shell
  • Rompetrol
  • 2Wins Shop
  • AB market
  • Grocery Djiev
  • shop 245
  • Fresh Market
  • Joy Day
  • Green life

Estimated Price of Bottled Water

1.5-liter0.99 Лв.€0.51$0.55£0.45
500ml0.60 Лв.€0.31$0.33£0.27

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Is Bucharest Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.57

Bucharest, Romania’s tap water is generally safe. It is part of the European Union that regulates water quality. Though older buildings run the risk of having contaminants in the pipes, and more suspected in rural areas.

Bucharest Tap Water
People’s Salvation Cathedral

Within the year an alert spread in social media that the tap water in Bucharest is not drinkable. The report says that water contains high amounts of chlorine. People were warned not to use water for brushing, cooking, and avoid drinking directly from the tap. The water company, Apa Nova, has released an official press release to clarify the said report. Letting the people know that they should not be alarmed and recommended to let the water run for a few moments before use. Apa Nova explained that they had to perform an additional water treatment in Bucharest, following the sudden melting ice. They also mentioned that there are no measures that break the quality standard of tap water.

Health Minister published that, according to the samples taken, the level of chlorine in the drinking water is within normal parameters.

Source of Water in Bucharest, Romania

Most of the city water comes from surface water. Another portion comes from groundwater in Bucharest. The Danube river is the second largest river in Europe that plays a big part when it comes to the water sources in Romania.

The Bucharest concession was Romania’s first public-private organization in the water and sanitation division. IFC’s part in structuring and completing the transaction presented support to international operators. The deal was made in March 2000. Vivendi of France (now Veolia) won the bid to manage and control the water sanitation system for 25 years. The company had spent more than $250 million in upgrading and maintaining the system. They provide the city with one of the lowest water and sanitation tariffs in Europe. The concession has developed water services, in Bucharest. The city’s standard of services is above other Romanian towns and toward western European levels.



Some of the Local Convenience Stores in Bucharest

Shop & Go Convenience Store
Shop & Go Convenience Store
  • Minimarket
  • Mega Image Shop & Go
  • Profi
  • Godac
  • Hub Convenience
  • Serendipity
  • Stop N Shop
  • Clic
  • DARKO Mini Market
  • Magazin Alimentar Nonstop
  • Carrefour Express
  • Mon Com

Estimated Price of Bottled Water

1.5-literlei 2.44$0.57€0.51£0.45

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Is Brussels Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$1.04

You can drink tap water in Brussels, Belgium. As far as the World Health Organization or European Union is concerned, Brussels, Belgium tap water passed the quality standard for drinking water. They also proved that the tap water is healthier than bottled water in Brussels. Authorities managed the quality of water seriously.

Brussels Tap Water
St Michael and St Gudula Cathedral, Brussels

About the taste, it may vary in place you are staying. Especially if you live or stay in an old household or building, the color and flavor may be different from the other. Using old pipes might cause contamination to your tap water. They use little chlorine for treatment to ensure safety. If you will compare the taste of water in Brussels, it is better than tap into New York. To lessen the taste of chlorine, we suggest that you leave the water in your fridge for a few hours. Or in some cases, you may also boil the water for a minute.

Since 2013, in the shade of Saint Michel and Gudule Cathedral, exists a free water fountain of a particular kind. In addition to offering open drinkable water, you also have the option of it being warm or cold and even sparkling water. As you walk downtown, they have available potable water fountains in the area. Hydrating is not an issue; potable water is available almost everywhere.

Source of Water in Brussels, Belgium

The primary source of water in Belgium is from surface water. The water distribution is coming from five river basins. Brussels get water from the Scheldt river basin and the Maas river basin that came from the sea that flows in the Netherlands. Other sources of tap water are springs and groundwater. The local government took a leading role, while the municipalities maintained an essential function for ensuring water supply and treatment.

An impressive perspective of the Belgian water and sanitation sector is the acknowledgment of a fundamental right to water. The Walloon and Brussels Regions have set up Social Funds for Water, which provide financial support to people having difficulties in paying their water bills.



Some of the Local Convenience Stores in Brussels

Carrefour Express
Carrefour Express
  • White night
  • Spar Express
  • Le Coin Bleu
  • Louis Delhaize – Porte de Hal
  • Alimentation Générale Sarah
  • Carrefour Express
  • La Bunicuta
  • Superette Nataneli
  • Au Bon Coin Sprl
  • Brussels Shop
  • Stop and Save Night Shop
  • Kam Yuen Supermarket
  • Black Night Press Shop & Food Store

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Is Venice Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.51

Yes, tap water in Venice, Italy, is safe for drinking. As a member of the EU must follow strict Drinking Water standards. The public health officials, the environmental protection agency, and the local water service perform several analyses and defines it as safe and fit to drink. They also recognized Venice tap water as one of the best in Italy. To keep the water from contamination, they use chlorine, which explains the taste of the water. Drinking water in Italy is fresh, safe, and easily accessible everywhere. And you may notice a crowd of people around the water well or water fountains in some part of Italy.

Venice Tap Water
Grand Canal Venice, Italy

Venice local officials advise tourists to use and take advantage of the free public water stations like the water fountains that are available on every square. You can bring an empty bottle and fill it up from the water fountains, one way to help Venice free from hazard environment. More than 20 million estimated people visit our Venice city every year. Therefore, millions of plastic bottles the guests leave behind add hugely to the city’s already significant waste disposal dilemmas.

Source of Water in Venice, Italy

The water in Venice is piped in from the mainland. The water originates from an area famous for bottled water found 30 km from Venice. And the central part of it begins from underground wells 300 meters deep, completely protected from human activities.

In the ancient years, though Venice was built on a swampland area in a salty lagoon, so its underground had nothing else to give than saltwater. Venetians found a solution to have drinkable water from filter rainwater.

Initially, they have to find a big surface around every well. The next step was to dig these “campi” and “Corti” 5 to 6 meters underground, and use clay, which is accessible in significant amounts in the Venetian soil, to create a solid isolating layer at the bottom. Then these great, and deep holes had to be filled in with river sand of distinctive dimensions. Finally, 2 or 4 gutters were built and set symmetrically throughout the well, which would drain the rainwater from the campo and get it to pass through the sand below its surface. Why squares are not flat but tend rather than to lower around every gutter? So it will be easier for the water to flow towards them naturally.



Some of the Convenience Stores in Venice

Coop & Coop Superstore
Coop & Coop Superstore
  • Il Buongusto
  • Coop
  • Plai Natal
  • Finlanka Food City
  • Tabacchi
  • Mini super market

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Is London Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.74

Is tap water safe to drink in London, England? Tap water in London is perfectly safe, though it is hard (i.e.high in calcium) you may not like the taste of the tap water. If you make a hot drink, you will find it leaves a scum on the surface, which is a bit off-putting to look at, but there is nothing wrong with it. UK’s tap water is one of the top-rated in the world.

London Water is Hard

Water is hard by the level of naturally occurring calcium and magnesium compounds in your water; high content classifies water as hard.

London Tap Water
Big Ben, River of Thames

Hard water is found in regions that have a chalk and limestone geology; water picks up chalk carbonates as it passes through. It is not that London itself is built on chalk and limestone, but the area to the west where it comes from.

There are no health complications in drinking hard water. Nevertheless, hard water can lead to scale forming and may also affect the form of hot drinks, increase soap consumption, and decrease detergent efficiency. That is why your flat white might look a bit weird then.

Source of Water in London, England

70% of London’s water is provided by reservoirs, which collect their water from the River Thames, from the west of the city. The large tanks you see around the M4/M25 store the river water ready for treatment.

Before putting it to London Ring Main, the water goes under treatment. A considerable pipe that’s necessarily the M25 of water pipes, surrounding London.

They are taking the water up in this pipe at multiple points and put into storage reservoirs, then run out in pipes, into people’s homes.

Moreover, the other 30% of water comes from boreholes, which bring up groundwater. Composing mainly of rain that has seeped down into the soil — the origin of the water that supplies springs, wells, and boreholes. Also essential flows through the rivers.



Some of the Convenience Stores in London

Londis Convenience Store
Broadgreen Londis
  • Londis
  • The Convenience Store
  • Best One London
  • Break Point Ltd T/A The convenience Store
  • The Corner Shop
  • Portlands 24/7
  • Ken’s Convenience Store
  • Nisa Local
  • Yours Food Centre
  • N K Convenience Store

Estimated Price of Bottled Water

1.5liter$ 0.74€ 0.66£ 0.60

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Is Zurich Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$1.36

The tap water in Zurich, Switzerland is pure, rich in minerals, and safe to drink. Most probably, it is much better than bottled water. Very common for European countries and cities to have potable water. Tap water is the most managed food in Switzerland and meets the standards of health and safety.

Zurich Tap Water
Limmat River, Zurich

Everyone has access to 1200 unique fountains located around Zurich, most of which spew drinkable water 24 hours a day. You can refill your bottled water on public fountains unless there’s a sign says the water is not potable. Considering water fountains are free, they still manage to maintain their quality. If you are unfamiliar with the place, you may access the Zurich water map to find the nearest water fountains.

Most buildings have sparkling water, which prefers by some locals, on behalf of that the taste of tap water is a beauty compare to sparkling water. We suggest that you take tap water, which is healthier than purified, filtered, or even sparkling water.

Source of Water in Zurich, Switzerland

The source of tap water in Zurich comes from surface water and groundwater. Surface water from natural springs and lakes. 40% of drinking water is spring water. This water mainly found in the Alps and the Jura. Springwater undergoes a various natural purification process. Another 40% of drinking water originates from groundwater. Groundwater supplies in Switzerland amount to over 50 billion cubic meters of water. The rest is collected from 30 lake waterworks. In lake basins, water from various streams is stored for a long time and is therefore very soft.

The supplier is detecting growing traces of the substance in water in recent years. However, this does not mean that water quality is degenerating. But because more advanced analytical instruments are becoming more accurate. As a result, the quality of water becomes better every year.



Some of the Convenience Stores in Zurich

Avec Convenience Store
Avec Convenience Store
  • Pacchetto
  • Zagros
  • Kiosk Kalkbreite
  • Asia Store
  • avec
  • Shell
  • BP
  • Studylife
  • Eni Cafe & Shop
  • migrolino
  • Migros
  • k kiosk

Estimated Price of Bottled Water

1.5-liter Fr. 1.35$1.36€1.23£1.07

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Is Dublin Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$1.42

The tap water in Dublin, Ireland, is safe to drink. Drinking water is a scarce commodity vital to the City and the health of its citizens. Every day 540 million liters of high-quality drinking water is provided to 1.5 million customers in the Dublin Region. In general, the quality of the public drinking water supply remained high, according to the report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). But continued investment to ensure the protection of supply was needed.

Dublin Tap Water
Dublin, Ireland

The record shows that 99.9% of public drinking water samples taken complied with microbiological standards. And 99.6% of samples complied with the chemical rules.

Generally, bigger towns like Dublin, you should feel secure to drink the tap water. But in rural areas, you may want to avoid ice cubes and stick to bottled water cautiously. Several hotels and restaurants throughout the country also have their water filter system that would make it safe to drink.

Source of Water in Dublin, Ireland

The primary source of tap water supply for the Dublin Region is surface water. Water is abstracted from Poulaphuca lake and treated in Ballymore Eustace Water Treatment Plant. Treated water is then transmitted from Ballymore Eustace to Dublin. Of the water treatment plants, water runs by gravity into large pipes to service reservoirs. These give short-term storage to guarantee a constant water supply throughout peak demand periods. Levels in the reservoirs drop during the day when demand is high and rise by night during demand is low.

From the service reservoirs, water flows through a smaller pipe system (distribution mains) to the City’s homes, schools, and businesses. Most water flows by gravity. However, in some elevated areas, it is necessary to pump. Over two thousand kilometers of underground pipes carry the water in a web-like network through the City.

Another source of water comes from groundwater. ​​​​Groundwater is vital as a source of drinking water, and it supports river flows, lake levels, and ecosystems. It contains natural substances dissolved from the soils and rocks. Human actions on the land surface can cause contamination. As a clean but vulnerable resource, groundwater needs to be managed and protected.



Some of the Local Convenience Stores in Dublin

Centra Convenience Store
Centra Convenience Store
  • Londis
  • Centra
  • Spar
  • O’Dwyer’s Daybreak
  • Extramart
  • Aziz Newsagents
  • Costcutter
  • MACE
  • Daybreak
  • Camelot Store
  • Paprika Store
  • Maxol
  • Gala

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Is Amsterdam Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$1.07

Is it safe to drink tap water in Amsterdam, Netherlands? It is 100% safe to drink. Amsterdam water is filtered in the dunes around Zandvoort and is of better quality than bottled water. It also contains less calcium to protect your washing machine or water cooler.

In Europe, the highest quality of water, the safest and the cleanest tap water is in Amsterdam. Advanced technology is being used by Dutch water companies to turn surface water to pure, drinkable water without chlorine or fluoride. Tap water in Amsterdam has a score of 8.4 from a scale of 1-10.

Amsterdam citizen scientists recently ran an interesting test, to check the tap water in Amsterdam’s freshness. As expected, the result of drinking water samples was compelling. The biomass and the total bacteria count were very low. Also, about the taste and smell, it was terrific. Therefore, bottled water is not needed. Locals tend to say that tap water is much healthier than mineral water they buy in a supermarket. What is more, Amsterdam’s tap water is very soft because it contains little calcium. Not only can they drink it, but also it is relatively safe for machines like electric kettles, coffee makers, or showerheads.

Is the Netherlands Public Water Safe?

Amsterdam Tap Water
Drinking Fountain

As announced by the Dutch government, drinking from water taps and public drinking fountains in Amsterdam is safe. The beginning of drinking fountains and water taps was in 1903. During this time, many residences do not have access to safe water. The government was committed to providing safe drinking water. Nowadays, it is a prevalent view –locals drinking some freshwater directly from the tap. More convenient and refreshing, especially when the temperature goes up! As a tourist, they will be happy to see that they will be able to drink free water. There are two types of drinking water taps in the city:

• Public drinking fountains – they often called them bubblers. A lot of them are green, others have decorative mosaic, and some have unique colors. Fascinating fact: the water of most city fountains gives a continuous water flow. Newly there are modified fountains that have a new feature – a push-button. They will be adding public water fountains with push buttons if the pilot project is successful.

• Water bottle filler stations or water taps – every year, days and nights, they can have some great tasting and safe water.



Some of the Local Convenience Stores in Amsterdam

SPAR Convenience Store
SPAR Convenience Store
  • SPAR
  • Shell Select
  • Supermarket
  • Supermarket Royal XL
  • Avondwinkel UNO
  • Sterk Amsterdam
  • Pinoy Food
  • Kokkes Avondverkoop
  • Marqt
  • BP

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


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