Is Tap Water in Bangkok Safe to Drink? (2019)

Tap water in Bangkok, Thailand has been verified as clean by World Health Organization standards since 1999. That means the water coming out of the tap is just as clean as water coming out of the valve in Los Angeles, London or Stockholm. Although the water that is provided by the water authority in Bangkok is absolutely drinkable when it leaves the plant, it will usually move through old, and broken pipes before it enters your tap. It is possibly causing the water to be unsafe to drink due to contamination when it comes to your house, building, or hotel.

Bangkok Tap Water

You need to keep yourself hydrated when you are in Bangkok. They recommend that you bring bottled water every time you leave your hotel. Refilling stations are available in Bangkok, where you can get a liter of water cheaper than getting one from a convenience store. In Bangkok as well, the MWA also has free water fountains dotted all over the city that you can use.

Source of Water in Bangkok, Thailand

The sources for drinking water for many Thai citizens are from surface water and groundwater sources. Water in Bangkok comes from two primary surface water the Chao Phraya River and the Mae Klong River. And the largest source of groundwater is in the Lower Central plain surrounding Bangkok and is used to meet the region’s water demands.

The Metropolitan Waterworks Authority started operations on August 16, 1967, under, ACT B.E. 2510(1967) to serve freshwater to Bangkok and other provinces.

They pumped the raw water from water pumping stations passing through the influent channel to the clarification section. Lime is added in controlled quantities to improve water quality and activate sedimentation efficiency during the clarification process. Moreover, Chlorine is added to stop the growth of algae and moss that may cause clarification effectiveness reduction.

Local Convenience Stores in Bangkok

  • Maxvalu Tanjai
  • SPAR Thailand Kanjanapisek
  • 7-Eleven
  • Tesco Lotus Express
  • Konbini Mart
  • Jiduban G Market
  • Lawson 108
  • Mini Big C
  • Vipa Grocery Store
  • Ban Mo Store

Estimated Price of Bottled Water

1.5-liter ฿17.46 $0.57€0.52£0.46

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Is Tap Water in Mumbai Safe to Drink? (2019)

Did you know that Mumbai tap water is now safe to drink? Tap water in Mumbai. Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation or BMC collected daily water samples from April 2018 to March 2019. And, they have found that only 0.7% of it has examined positive for coliform bacteria. Way better than the quality standard set by the World Health Organization limit for it is 5%.

Tap Water in Mumbai

As a result, the communities need to sustain the cleanliness of the tanks and storage. On their observation, BMC’s Master Balance Reservoir in Bhandup has one of the purest water in the world. But as it goes by the distribution system, its quality degrades, and the end consumer gets polluted water, which is unsafe for consumption without filtering.

Authorities rehauled the distribution system and hoping that the safe supply continues. Mumbai is known for the water-borne illnesses and cases of diarrhea that come to light every year. We are now hoping that the water supply remains clean.

Source of Water in Mumbai, India

Mumbai has a population of over 13 million, is one of the largest cities in the world. The water originates from both lake and river sources by gravity and pumped schemes. Water supplied by gravity is drawn from Vaitarna, Tansa, upper Vaitarna, Vihar, Tulsi, and Powai. The pumped water source is from rive Bhatsa, 65kms from the city. Pumping schemes were taken up, after the completion of the projects with lake sources in 1972.

Earlier times, rainwater was the primary source of water supply, and in which they collect from tanks. People managed to estimate the height of collected rainwater in the tank. And subsequently, choose how much to draw from it to make it last over the year, recalls Kisan Mehta. Now, with piped water supply, this old way of conservation of water has been forgotten.

Some of the Local Convenience Stores in Mumbai

  • Modern Stores
  • Delta Convenience Store
  • 9 Nine
  • Aashapura
  • Janta
  • Apna Bazaar
  • Geeta Supermarket
  • The Loot Mart

Estimated Price of Bottled Water

1.5-liter ₹28.14$0.40€0.36£0.32

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Is Tap Water in Singapore Safe to Drink? (2019)

Can you drink tap water in Singapore? It is safe to drink straight from the tap, says the PUB.

The PUB is the legal board of the Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources accountable for acquiring, disseminating, producing, and reclaiming water to ensure sustainable and efficient water supply for Singapore. They are also known as the National Water Agency.

To sustain the quality of tap water in Singapore, they are checking the rooftop water tanks at least once a year. The World Health Organisation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s recognized Singapore’s tap water as well within the international guidelines. No need for further filtration or boiling to drink tap water.

“PUB takes a close view of the safety of our water rations to customers,” said the PUB. “Should there be lapses, the PUB will not hesitate to take enforcement.” If lapses found, owners will face a fine of up to $10,000, up to a year imprisonment or both.

Source of Water in Singapore

  • Water Catchment – Water collected from rainfall and used water. How to collect rainwater? Through an extensive network of drains, canals, and rivers. Water routed to reservoirs before treatment. On the other hand, used water obtained in underground pipes that head to a recycling plant. Separate methods guarantee that the waterways are free of contamination.
Tap Water in Singapore
  • Imported Water – Singapore can allure up to 250 million gallons of water a day from Johor river. In return, they are required to provide up to 2% treated water to Johor river following the water agreement in 1962. Added deal in 1990 composed by PUB that Linggiu Reservoir will free water into the Johor river to supplements its flow.
  • NEWater – method converts our treated used water into ultra-clean, high-grade reclaimed water, cushioning our water supply against dry weather and moving Singapore towards water sustainability. Now, five NEWater plants are fulfilling up to 40% of Singapore’s current water demands. By 2060, NEWater must meet up to 55% of Singapore’s projected water demand.
  • Desalinated Water – Seawater surrounding Singapore, and PUB has transposed seawater into drinking water. PUB continue to spend in experimentation to gain more effective ways to desalinate seawater. Today, we have three desalination plants with a blended capacity of 130 mgd that can reach up to 30% of Singapore’s current water needs. An additional two more desalination plants will be ready by 2020. Desalinated water is supposed to meet up to 30% of Singapore’s projected water demands by 2060.

Most Popular Convenience Stores in Singapore

  • Buzz
  • 7-Eleven
  • Capitol Corner Convenience Store
  • Cheers

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


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Is Tap Water in Canggu Bali Safe? (2019)

Can you drink tap water in Canggu Bali, Indonesia? No, unless it is boiled or filtered. Due to poor water pipe infrastructure and tropical heat that can cause pathogens. Pathogens include bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that will make them sick.

Canggu Bali Tap Water

It is most likely safe to drink tap water after boiling it for a minimum of 3-5minutes. Most tea, coffee, and ice served at Warungs are boiled tap water.

Other problems are locals and other permanent residents exposed to heavy metals, pesticides, and chemicals that pollute tap water sources. In the long term, exposure can cause cancer, kidney problems, and even worse brain injuries to children.

Source of Water in Canggu Bali, Indonesia

Tap water in Canggu, Bali, shallow groundwater, and springs are the primary sources of water in Bali. Preparation of water services in the islands ‘urban areas’ is the obligation of PDAM’s (Perusahaan Daerah Air Minum), local government-owned water services.

To All Tourist Please Note:

As a tourist, it often pegged as the cause of many a tourist’s cases of “Bali belly.“ Drinking tap water can be vital for a sensitive stomach, so consider only drinking bottled water. Also, always have bottled water handy, as the weather in Bali is often sunny. Heatstroke can occur if they allow themselves to go without water for longer than is healthy.

A different story about ice in Bali – the island’s ice supply is quality-controlled by the local government. It is safe to get ice from an authorized dealer or seller.

Most Common Local Convenience Stores in Canggu Bali

  • Indomaret
  • Alfamart
  • Pepito
  • Papaya
  • Coco Mart
  • Nirmala
  • Popular
  • Mini Mart
  • Circle K

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


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Is Ho Chi Minh Water from the Tap Safe to Drink? (2019)

The tap water in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam is not safe to drink. According to the Ministry of Health proved that the content of chlorine, broadly used to purify water as a disinfectant and bleaching agent, fails to meet required standards.

Ho Chi Minh Tap Water

Chlorine concentration was seen exceeding the maximum level in areas near the reservoirs of Saigon Water Supply Corporation (SAWACO) and being under the minimum rate in other areas far from the lakes, according to the results of the check.

In some areas, especially apartments, the chlorine content was nearly zero, as measured during the check sent out by the Department of Health and Environment Management under the ministry.

Local suggested boiling the water before use or drinking. Or you may also consider bottled water as a precaution to some who have a sensitive stomach.

Source of Water in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Currently, around 93 percent of the drinking water in Ho Chi Minh City originates from two treatment plants on the Dong Nai River and Saigon River, while the remaining 7 percent comes from groundwater reservoirs polluted by seawater intrusion and chemical contamination.

In the city, they have two primary treatment plants the Hoc Mon District and Thu Duc District. In the outer lying regions have several smaller plants that treated their water. Reservoirs treated the water by sedimentation, filtration, and chlorine disinfectant.

Due to many sources of pollution in the river courses and underground sources, the water quality is extremely degraded. Authorities have initiated international water companies to invest in the commercial development of water supply infrastructure.

Some of the Local Convenience Stores in Ho Chi Minh City

  • B’s Mart
  • GS25
  • BA plus
  • Shop & Go
  • 7-eleven
  • Circle K
  • MiniStop
  • Co.op Food Pasteur
  • FamilyMart
  • Aeon Citimart Somerset
  • Supermarket Vinmart +

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


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Is Shanghai Tap Water Safe To Drink? (2019)

Shanghai, China’s tap water is not safe for drinking. Some say it depends on which part of China you were. Due to populated cities, exposure to pollution and toxic contamination is an issue. Boiling water is not an option. Toxic, lead, and heavy metals cannot be killed by simply boiling. According to the official, 85% of the water in the city’s major rivers was undrinkable in 2015. And 56.4% was inappropriate for any purpose. It is recommended to purchase fresh bottled water from convenience stores or supermarkets. Bottled water is cheaper in a large market. Famous brands include Nongfu Spring, Nestle, C’estbon, Evian, Kunlun Mountains, and Wahaha. Different kinds of bottled tea and juice are also available.

shanghai tap water

The authority in the large cities declares that the tap water is drinkable/potable according to world standards like EPA and WHO. Yet, if you ask several mid to high-income families will not take the risk by trusting tap water in their premises.

Source of Water in Shanghai, China

Shanghai can get their water from surface water and groundwater. Most of Shanghai’s water originates from Qingcaosha. It is the country’s largest reservoir, resided in the Yangtze River. The new storage just started operations in 2010, displacing much of the supply of water from the Huangpu River. Shanghai Daily published that some problems were arising with water supply. Specialists noticed signs of unnecessary nutrients due to the runoff of fertilizers and sewage from the land. Wastewater discharged directly into rivers.

The storage of water before reaching your tap valve is another concern that can cause contamination. Water tanks on the premises are supposed to be disinfected by property management companies. It is advisable to clean it twice per year. And after cleansing, Shanghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention should examine water samples.

Some of the Local Convenience Stores in Shanghai

  • City Shop
  • Feidan
  • Haifu Convenience Store
  • Metro
  • Lawson
  • Watsons
  • Bright
  • Quik
  • Quanjia
  • Easy Joy
  • 7 eleven
  • Carrefour
  • Family Mart

Estimated Price of Bottled Water

1.5-liter ¥4.66$0.66€0.59£0.51

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Is Tap Water in Seoul Safe to Drink? (2019)

Is tap water safe to drink in Seoul, South Korea? Tap water is safe according to the public official of The Korea Water Resources Corporation.

Despite the widespread misgivings, Seoul’s tap water may be healthier and tastier than bottled water.

Source of Water in Seoul, Korea

tap Water in Seoul

The primary water source in Seoul is the Han River’s old name dating back to the Goguryeo Dynasty, Seoul’s tap water has filtration through one of six treatment plants along the Han River. Scientists continuously monitor the water quality for 170 variables, as the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends.

How Healthy is Tap Water?

The mineral content of tap water is as healthy as bottled spring water. The same NIER research showed that mineral content between the two was alike. Purified water, however, had almost zero mineral content.

Despite the scientific evidence, Koreans have not embraced tap water. Most households buy two-liter water bottles in bulk or install a purifier in their homes.

Numerous are put off by the smell and taste of chlorine in the tap water and consider flat water to be cleaner. To tackle this psychological barrier, the city government spent 528.5 billion won ($472 million) on upgrades to all treatment centers in 2015, explicitly aimed at improving the smell of tap water.

Public distrust in tap water runs deep, partly due to past incidents like the 1991 Nakdong River phenol contamination disturbance. City officials hope the new upgrades will deliberately ease the population into drinking tap water.

What Cause the Contamination?

An added problem is old pipelines that could dissolve rust and lead into the water. The city government has been changing the city’s water pipes to new stainless steel ones since 1984 to keep the flowing water clear. As of 2017, over 98% of the city’s 13,366-kilometer water pipe chain had been upgraded this way.

It is the homeowner’s discretion whether to replace water pipes inside houses or their apartments. The city government offered to finance up to 2.5 million won ($2234) of the pipe-switching costs for homes built before 1994. By 2017, 61%, or 349,273 targeted homes, had changed their pipes since 2007.

You can take extra precautions to lessen your worries by leaving the tap open for 30 seconds before use. Flushes out water that sits inside the pipes for a long time. Hot water may run through rusted boiler tanks, only recommended to drink cold water as per authorities.

For water quality test you can click here.

Here are Some Convenience Stores in Seoul

  • 7 eleven
  • GS25
  • Family Mart
  • Mini Stop

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


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Is Chiang Mai Tap Water Safe? (2019)

Is it safe to drink tap water in Chiang Mai, Thailand? Some people trust the tap water. Locals in Chiang Mai are not drinking tap water. That said, Thailand’s Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-o-cha and the Provincial Waterworks Authority, reassure that the water in Chiang Mai municipality exceeds standards laid out by the World Health Organization.

Heating water till it boil for a minute will kill bacteria and microorganism. However, hazardous heavy metals, chemical contaminants, and particulate matter that may be in the water will remain. Drinking tap water in Thailand is unrecommended—unless it is a life or death scenario. Which only leaves us exploring other options for how to get drinking water in Chiang Mai.

Bottled Water in Chiang Mai

Chaing Mai bottled drinking water is sold separately or wrapped bundles of 6, 12, and 24. You may find them in any grocery store or convenience stores that we have listed below.

In Thailand, bottled water is a big business. Bottled water in Thailand is within the top ten markets in the world worth over 1 billion USD.

Chiang Mai Tap Water

Source of Water in Chiang Mai, Thailand

There are three significant sources of water in Chiang Mai for bottled water corporations: public water supply, underground aquifers, and spring water.

In order to get rid of the liquid contaminants, water bottle companies filter their water through the various purification process. Many companies perform purification through “REVERSE OSMOSIS.“ In this process, water filtered until impurities and large particles removed from the liquid. Reverse Osmosis a cheap and quick solution to purify water allows residents to have enough water that lasts for a week at a reasonable cost.

Common Convenience Stores in Chiang Mai

  • Tesco Lotus Express
  • Mini Big C
  • Tops daily mini
  • Rimping Supermarket
  • Green Store
  • 7 Eleven
  • Tops market Chotana
  • Chiang Mai Bread

Bottled Water Estimated Price


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Is Boracay Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2019)

Yes, many people do drink tap water in Boracay. Water goes through a treatment process, potable water – not pumped out of deep wells as it is in some areas. And according to some locals, they’ve been drinking water straight from the tap without any problem. But drinking unfamiliar water may upset your stomach so best to be safe than sorry and use bottled. For brushing teeth, Boracay’s tap water is fine.

It is safe to use ice from the hotel or other known establishments. Ice is delivered sealed, and they use purified water.

To protect the tap water quality in Boracay, the government included the place as another water quality management area(WQMA). The goal of the WQMA is to protect, through stakeholder collaboration. They follow the Water Quality Guidelines and ensure that the water quality is within or beyond the standard.

Source of Water in Boracay, Philippines

Boracay Tap Water

The Boracay has two water utilities, namely The Boracay Tubi System Inc. and Boracay Island Water Company or Boracay Water. The main water source of the Boracay Island originates from the surface of the Nabaoy River, and that according to DENR-EMB a CLASS A river of Western Visayas located in the mainland Brgy. Nabaoy. From the river, it is abstracted going to Boracay Water’s pump station; from there it traverses down to their water treatment plant located at Brgy. Caticlan and process the water (Sedimentation & Chlorination). After treatment, they drew the water to Tabon pumping station moving to the submarine pipe up to the Manocmanoc reservoir in Boracay Island.

Boracay’s 2018 Rehabilitation

The island had undergone a six months rehabilitation and restoration that started last April 26, 2018. Boracay is one of the nation’s major tourist destinations. Boracay had two million tourists in the year 2017.

A business forum held on February 9, 2018; President Rodrigo Duterte called the island of Boracay a “cesspool”. Stated plans to close the island to tourists and manage a rehabilitation on the island that happens last June 2018 to fix the worsening sewage conditions there. Duterte has directed the Environment secretary to address the environmental issues on the island.

And finally, Boracay back to life after the six months rehabilitation. They strictly enforced waste management and to ensure that water quality retains its form or turn to a better quality.

Here Are Some of the Convenience Stores in Boracay

  • Budget Mart
  • Pricelite Outlet
  • MiniStop
  • De Rose Family Mart
  • 24 SEVEN Quick Mart
  • 7-Eleven
  • Munsterific
  • Green Stop
  • Wang Mart Grocery Store
  • G&R Family Mart
  • Savemore Market City Mal
  • John – Glen’s convenience store

Estimated Price of Bottled Water

1.5-liter ₱35.00$0.67€0.61£0.54

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Kuala Lumpur Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2019)

Can you drink tap water in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia? Technically Kuala Lumpur tap water does meet the standards set by the World Health Organisation for drinking water. In fact, the Malaysian Ministry of Health has established parameters utilizing those set by the WHO.

According to locals, they do not drink the tap water. They use bottled water or boiled water for drinking. You may use tap water for brushing your teeth. You can buy generic brands of bottled water from supermarkets or convenience stores and stick with that.

Source of Water in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

The primary water source of Malaysia are rivers, and it supplies 97% of water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural. Other resources from, annual rainfall, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge.

What Causing the Contamination?

Kuala Lumpur Tap Water

Kuala Lumpur tap water was generally safe to drink as chlorination would have killed any bacteria present in water. There were other factors to be considered.

Tap water is safer if a person’s lives near the water treatment plant and has new main water pipes. New pipes must be few years old and not cast iron pipes which can cause corrode. This included the piping at home. Piping might not be corroded if the house is less than 10 years old.

The professor in water once said, “tap water is safe if there are no repairs or upgrading works by the water service provider that can pollute and contaminate the pipe water, and also if there are no leaks in the original pipes or the pipes in your house.”

Conventional water treatment cannot filter heavy metals, organic contaminants, and microbial. Water near agricultural areas may carry harmful organic material from pesticide or fertilizer application. The water near industrial plants can cause pollutant. During conventional water treatment, these chemicals are not eliminated.

Popular Convenience Stores in Kuala Lumpur

  • FamilyMart
  • 7-Eleven
  • Kl Convenience Store
  • Jajan convenience store
  • 24in Convenient Store
  • Gilasco
  • 168 Store

Bottled Water Estimated Price


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Is Hong Kong Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2019)

Can you drink tap water in Hong Kong? Water Supplies Department announces that Hong Kong possesses one of the safest water supplies in the world. However, some part of the city and buildings are old that uses unlined galvanized steel pipes that prone to rust. Since 1995 these types of pipes is banned in new constructions. There are still old plumbing present and might be unsafe to drink because water runs through the rusted pipes.

At your hotel, you may see a little sign by the sink or faucet, that indicates that the water is not safe.

Source of Water in Hong Kong

Hong Kong has two primary sources of water. Mainly rainfall from natural mountain catchments, and by pipeline supply from Guangdong Province. Hong Kong built several inland dams, as well as cisterns found at the top of hills. But with the growing population of Hong Kong, a shortage of natural storage reservoir sites led to the development of Hong Kong’s premier ‘reservoir in the sea’ at Plover Cove – the Plover Cove Reservoir.


Many locals will tell you it is quite OK to drink the water, but like mentioned before, it depends on the pipes the water ran through, be cautious:

Hong Kong Tap Water
  • Most hotels provide bottled water or a kettle to boil the water; it is there for a reason, use it!
  • Fruits washed with tap water should be peeled to be on the safe side.
  • Stay away from ice cubes and stick with chilled bottled/canned drinks.
  • Bottled water is available everywhere; should be appropriately sealed.

Drinking-Water Quality Data

The WSD started publishing annual water quality data of drinking water in August 2000. You can monitor results on their website. Since December 2002 the WSD is publishing drinking water quality data in half-yearly. During the period April 2018 to March 2019, the drinking water quality data is summarized as follows:

For the quality data of DJ water, please refer to the DJ Water web page.

Here are Some Convenience Stores in HONG KONG

  • 7-Eleven
  • Circle K
  • OK便利店
  • JustGreen Organic Convenience Store
  • Watsons

Bottled Water Estimated Price


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Is Tap Water in Taipei Safe to Drink? (2019)

Is it safe to drink tap water in Taipei? The tap water supplied by T.W.D. (Taipei Water Department) in Taipei, Taiwan is totally safe. T.W.D.’s water quality is as good as the advanced countries. To retain high standards of water quality at points of use, T.W.D. frequently takes samples of tap water from users’ premises and examines them. The lab has professional staff and equipped with a sophisticated instrument and is a pioneer water examination laboratory in Taiwan to be certified by the R.O.C. Environmental Protection Agency as a qualified.

The system has enabled TWD to observe the water quality in the raw water intakes, in the treatment method at its purification plant, and the distribution system. Consequently, it assures the quality of the water supply and enhances TWD’s credibility.

Water Source in Taipei, Taiwan

Tap Water in Taipei

TWD also demands water samples from all water sources, which includes Feitsui Reservoir, treatment plants, and consumers’ premises for analysis. Water quality in Taipei is outstanding according to test data.

A laboratory was set up by TWD at its Water Quality Center, to ensure the potable quality of its water supply to customers. They perform regular testing on a variety of samples taken from raw water sources. They analyze various units in the filtration process, specific points in the distribution pipe network, and to conduct trend analyses on water quality readings. 

What System Are They Using to Monitor the Quality of Water?

In July 1983 to ensure healthy drinking and the stability of its water quality TWD inaugurated its computerized water quality monitoring system. The focus in the early stages was on raw water turbidity. They also check the pH value of coagulated water and residual chlorine of water output. Same with the residual chlorine of water at over 20 specific points in Taipei City.

All treatment plants were ordered to transmit water quality readings (including those obtained at the plants and others acquired at remote monitoring stations) to this Center via exclusive digital lines for overall monitoring and control. Thanks to constant R&D and improvement efforts by TWD’s professional staff, the system since then has witnessed continuous upgrades and expansions to meet increasing demands in different stages. Currently, the Center monitors readings of more than 520 water quality items across TWD’s service area. Chemical feeding procedure has also reached a high degree of automation. In short, the system has provided TWD with comprehensive, automatic monitoring and control of water quality.

Do You Have Questions?

If you are concerned about your tap water in Taipei, please feel free to call number is 8733-5678, and they will answer your questions on the phone or make a field survey and examine the water quality for you. The service is free of charge.

Most Common Convenience Stores in Taipei

  • 7-Eleven
  • Family Mart
  • Hilife
  • Hands Tailung
  • OK Mart
  • Wxy Yakka
  • Cho Chuang everything store

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


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Is Dubai Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2019)

Is Dubai, U.A.E. tap water safe to drink? Generally speaking, you can absolutely drink tap water in Dubai and other parts of the UAE. However, we need to consider some potential risks.

Dubai tap Water

As stated by Ultra, a maintenance company, debris, and other contaminants could build up over time in the water storage tank and provide a breeding ground such as legionella and other harmful bacteria. These can create a high-risk environment for the entire building if left unchecked. Tanks should be regularly clean every six months.

Any domestic water supply, contamination can occur but is rare, mainly storage tanks are cleaned regularly. Dubai tap water comes from desalinated sea-water and represents some of the best technology available. Treatment with chlorine, not fluoride. All public water systems have harmless bacterial“slime’ and travelers can suffer some intestinal discomfort initially as the intestinal flora reacts to different strains. Some consider tap water safer than bottled water, where the exposure to PBAs can occur. Moreover, of course, there is the ecosystem cost of plastic packaging.  

Source of Water in Dubai, UAE

Dubai drinking water came from desalination. The source is from the seawater; they boil it and let the steam cool. The evaporated water is then filtered and treated to make it fit for drinking, washing, and industrial use. The concentrated salt water, which is the byproduct, will then drawn back into the Gulf. The water is handled first in the Dubai Aluminium (Jebel Ali) works before final cleaning at the DEWA (Jebel Ali) plant. This system, they can utilize the water first to cool the aluminum smelters before further sanitation and domestic/commercial consumption.

Is DUBAI Water Hard?

Due to rainwater falls, water is naturally soft. Still, running water from the ground and into our waterways, it picks up minerals like chalk, lime, and mostly calcium and magnesium. Note that hard water contains essential minerals. Because of the health benefits, most people preferred hard water. Sometimes soft water tastes salty that makes it not suitable for drinking.

Hard water: is water that contains a considerable quantity of dissolved minerals (like calcium and magnesium).

Soft water: is treated water in which the only ion is sodium.

Most Common Convenience Stores in DUBAI

  • Circle K Store
  • 7-Eleven
  • Sakb Convenience Store
  • ZOOM
  • F Mart
  • Allday Minimart Sofitel
  • Shuaa Al Madina
  • Emarat Plus
  • Grab & Go
  • Bluemart Liwan

Estimated Price of Bottled Water

1.5-literد.إ 2.25$0.61€0.56£0.49
500ml2.00 د.إ $0.54 €0.49 £0.42

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Tap Water in Tokyo Safe to Drink? (2019)

Yes, Tokyo, Japan’s extensive tap water supply system is safe. In fact, before a single drop of fresh, tasty water is released into the system, it has to pass over 50 quality measures set by the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare. We define Tokyo tap water as soft water. The taste of soft water is mild, so tap water in Tokyo is suitable for drinking!

Tokyo Tap Water

The tap water is drinkable even without filtration and boiling, in metro stations, malls, public toilets, and even in hotels. The quality of the water is determined at the source and not at each tap! I’m not saying contamination in such an extensive water supply system is impossible, but in general, everyone considered the water safe everywhere.

It is also safe to drink Tokyo’s tap water during all seasons and also during the cold winter period from December to February. Some claim it’s even safer than bottled water! The reason is that Japan’s regulations for public water supplies are more stringent than those governing bottled spring water.

Source of Water in Tokyo, Japan

Tokyo is focusing on two water sources: surface water and groundwater.

Tokyo currently receives 80% of its water from the Tonegawa and Arakawa Rivers, and the remaining 20% from the Tamagawa River. The water from Tamagawa is clear enough that it only needs standard treatment to make it drinkable. The quality of freshwater emanating from the first two rivers. However, it is somewhat lower. But by implementing advanced water treatment, the waterworks can bring quality to an exceptionally high level.

Groundwater partially restricted in some regions in Tokyo Japan. Therefore only a little percentage currently using groundwater just like in Tama Region, western Tokyo.

Rapid economic growth in Japan is a concern for groundwater. Problems like land subsidence and groundwater salinization arose and constituted a significant challenge. Currently, in Japan, where groundwater dilemmas have become well-known, groundwater preservation measures such as consumption limitations and conversion to river water intake are being introduced based on laws and municipal directives.

Popular Convenience Stores in Tokyo

  • 7 Eleven
  • Lawson
  • Family Mart
  • NewDays Tokyo Keiyo
  • Quality Store Seikatsu Saika
  • Nissin World Delicatessen
  • Indobazaar
  • Ministop
  • Peacock

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


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Macau Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2019)

Macau Tap Water

Tap Water in Macau is safe to drink. Bottled water is inexpensive and broadly available from convenience stores and supermarkets. For short business travel, drinking only bottled water can reduce the possibility of illness.

Water quality in compliance with the stringent local drinking water standards they monitored it’s quality daily. You can enjoy our excellent quality drinking water with confidence! Starting the morning with a glass of water upon waking is always a great way to begin the day hydrated!

While tap water is safe to drink, most locals boil or filter their water or buy cheap bottled water because of the taste. And due to possibly contaminated water that comes from old building water storage that is not well maintained. You should boil it too if you’re not sure about the quality of the pipes in the building where you’re staying.

By the end of 2018, Macau’s total population was 670,900, and annual water consumption hit 88.44 million cubic meters. The number had been regularly rising.

Source of Water in Macao

The primary source Macau’s water is from Xi Jiang or West River, with over 90 percent originating of the Modaomen Channel. Water from Hong Wan Pumping Station drew out going to the Lapa Storage Reservoir. And then released to treatment plants in Macau into three freshwater pipes.

Macau Water’s major investment projects incorporated the laying and replacement of the water supply pipeline system. According to the company, in 2016, they replace 1.8 km of old water pipelines. Investment projects also include upgrading and enhancing water supply equipment, changing water meters, implementing the new system of smart pipeline network, as well as daily maintenance of fixed assets.

Macau Common Convenience Stores

  • Circle K
  • 7-Eleven
  • Profit Snacks convenience store
  • Workers Recreation Hall supermarkets
  • Garel Paris
  • Fortune Cigar
  • Eighteen Pu convenience store
  • Park ‘n Shop Taipa

Estimated Price of Bottled Water

1.5-liter9.60 $1.19€1.07£0.95

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