Is Cape Town Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$1.06

The municipality of Cape Town in South Africa has some of the safest tap water in the world. They closely monitor the water quality by analyzing large numbers of water samples, as required by the South African National Standards (SANS) regulations. To ensure the excellent quality of tap water, the Scientific Services Laboratory tests almost 6000 samples of water each year. They collect Cape Town drinking water and perform tests from sampling points throughout the water system. Based on the reported results, the municipal water supply remains safe to drink.

Cape Town Tap Water
Cape Town, South Africa

During the 2019 dry season, which was harsher than it had been in years, Cape Town residents noticed a change in water quality. They reported tasting a robust earthy flavor in their tap water. After investigations were carried out by South Africa’s water experts, they reassured people that there was nothing to worry about.

The raw water supply had large amounts of geosmin. A natural organic compound that grows in the water when new rainfalls break a dry spell. The human palate is very sensitive to this chemical. It can be distinguished in the smallest concentrations, even as little as a few parts per trillion liters of water. The compound also expands during hot weather.

Source of Water in Cape Town, South Africa

Cape Town relies on rainwater that is collected by the Western Cape Water Supply System for most of its water. The majority (95%) of water comes from the regional, integrated surface water system which is managed by the national Department of Water and SanitationRainfed dams are a cheaper alternative to sources like groundwater, reused water, and desalinated water. Because it is more affordable, the City will continue and rely on rainfed dams for most of its water supply. Cape Town also invests in alternative sources of water to at least cover one-fourth of the City’s needs.

The drinking water in Cape Town is remarkably high quality. This is a result of a variety of treatment processes and because most of the water consumed in Cape Town is collected from unpolluted mountain catchments and aquifersCape Town water complies with the strict guidelines as specified in the South African National Standards (SANS 241:2015) for drinking water. They have won multiple Blue Drop awards from the Department of Water and Sanitation for its water quality.

The City of Cape Town has 12 treatment plants and collectively these plants provide a treatment capacity of approximately 1,600 Ml per day. Before the introduction of water treatment, Cape Town water was tea-colored because of high concentrations of plant matter. More severe problems included the build-up of sediment in the pipelines, which caused blockages, and the water’s high acidity levels, which corroded pipes and valves.



Some of the Local Convenience Stores in Cape Town

Pick n Pay Convenience Store
Pick n Pay
  • J&M Famous Biltong
  • Seven Penguins
  • Convenience Store
  • FreshStop at Caltex Winch Motors
  • Pick n Pay Camps Bay
  • Engen Quick Shop
  • Clyde Grocers Corner Shop
  • Parker’s Store
  • city limits
  • Woolworths Foodstop
  • Total
  • Chadash Motors BP

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


Other links:

Is Johannesburg Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$1.04

The tap water in Johannesburg, South Africa is safe to drink. Tap water in Johannesburg is reported to be some of the most reliable and cleanest in the world.

Johannesburg Tap Water
Skyline Johannesburg, South Africa

Tap water undergoes treatment which guarantees it is free of dangerous micro-organisms and contaminants. In some regions, South African drinking water is rich in minerals.

Avoid, drinking water from streams and rivers, particularly in areas where there is human habitation. Rivers and streams may carry water-borne diseases. But if you find unpolluted mountain steam, a drink would be most refreshing!

Contaminated water can be sanitized by boiling for 10 minutes, or by adding a teaspoon of bleach per 25 liters or a teaspoon of chlorine granules per 200 liters. In both cases, let the water to stand for 2 hours. Another approach is to expose water to direct sunlight for at least 6 hours in a translucent container with a small airspace, shaking after filling and every hour after that.

Source of Water in Johannesburg, South Africa

In the 19th century, Johannesburg tap water comes from the groundwater of the Zuurbekom Well. Water from the well was of such good quality that it didn’t need any purification. Due to the growing population, the water from Zuurbekom Wells could no longer supply the increasing demand. Another became the Vaal River to the south of Johannesburg.

In 1938 the Vaal Dam was built upstream of the Vaal River Barrage Reservoir, which is now the primary source of water. Rivers such as the Vaal, Klip, and Wilge Rivers naturally flow into the Vaal Dam. These rivers flow through agricultural land and rural settlements with very little industry. The Vaal Dam is of good quality by international standards. The Vaal River is one of the major rivers in South Africa, but runoff does not pose a large problem.



Some of the Convenience Stores in Johannesburg

Fresh Stop Convenience Store
Fresh Stop Convenience Store
  • Shell Shop
  • Pete’s Convenience Store
  • FreshStop at Caltex Rouxville
  • Rite Price Supermarket & Wholesale
  • Yummy Mayfair
  • bp shop
  • Bruma 24 Hrs Quick Shop
  • Anilaa Tuck Shop
  • Magnum Stores
  • Bafana Bafana Tuck Shop
  • Quick Shop
  • Triple T Easy Buy Store
  • New Supersave Supermarket

Estimated Price of Bottled Water

1.5-liter15.75 R$1.04€0.95£0.84
500ml9.48 R$0.63€0.57£0.51

Other links:

Tap Water Safety in Africa (Continent)

Africa’s lack of clean water, sanitation, and hygiene costs Sub-Saharan African nations more in lost GDP than the whole continent gets in development aid. Depending on the country and region, economic benefits have been estimated to range from 3USD to 34USD for each dollar spent in clean water and sanitation. The 25 countries globally with the most insufficient access to safe water (19 of them African) dominate the top 50 countries with the highest child mortality. Between 23 percent and 59 percent of children in these countries endure stunted growth, and between 43 percent and 91 percent of their populations have no access to developed sanitation. Between 18 percent and 68 percent of their people live below the poverty line.

Is Cape Town Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Johannesburg Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Tap Water Safety in Africa (Continent)

Is Kinshasa Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Casablanca Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Durban Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Mogadishu Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Marrakesh Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Accra Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Lagos Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Nairobi Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Is Cairo Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Source link:

Is Kinshasa Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?no
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?no
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.72

Drinking tap water in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo, is not safe to drink. DRC endowed with large quantities of fresh water. However, water security is low because of economic and governance constraints. Due to a lack of facilities and water management systems, the city tap water did not go through proper sanitation and treatment.

Kinshasa Tap Water
The Congo River

In the DRC, the state water utility cannot improve its water pumping system because of a shortage in financing to initiate the project. Alternatively, they continue to pump water to needy areas through rusty, decaying pipes. A report from IRIN, only about 69 percent of the urban areas of the DRC receive water from the state water utility. There are a notable amount of citizens not receiving water to their towns and villages, ending in the locals looking for options to satisfy their needs of water.

USAID is helping the Government of the DRC to produce and increase systems required to manage the country’s water and sanitation targets. In association with the Global Water Strategy and the USAID Agency Specific Plan. USAID is petitioning water and sanitation demands through large scale investments in health services and systems. Additional U.S. government activities in the DRC include USAID/Food for Peace’s Development Food Assistance Program, and disease outbreak response, including for Ebola and cholera.

Source of Water in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

In Kinshasa, the main supply of water in urban areas comes from surface water that runs through the Congo river. Only 2 percent of the country lies within the Nile basin. This region is consumed by the Semliki River in the northeastern Albertine Rift beside the Uganda border and involves lakes, Edward and Albert. Despite its comparably small size, the Semliki watershed is a hydro-strategic region as it provides up to 4.6 km3 or 20 percent of White Nile flows. Another source for most rural areas comes from groundwater.

In History, the Congo River is unique. They named the country after this vast river, the second-largest freshwater river in the world. The river covers 98% of DRC’s surface area. And yet today, this exceptional natural lifeline is hurting not just from the threat of large dams to come, including the modern scourge of contamination.



Some of the Local Convenience Stores in Kinshasa

Shoprite Supermarket
  • Regal
  • Shoprite
  • Ok Mart
  • Shop And Save
  • Boucherie Ngombe
  • S&K
  • Bienvenue
  • Kin Marché
  • Hyper Psaro
  • City Market

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


Other links:

Is Casablanca Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.59

Casablanca, Morocco tap water is generally harmless for locals. But if you’re from another country, opt for bottled water. You don’t know how your body might react to the different bacteria found in the local tap water. Generally, the water is clean and safe.

Casablanca Tap Water
Casablanca Clock Tower

The Government assured citizens that they conduct a test that follows the WHO quality standards. They also coordinate with the Ministry of Health. Water is treated by chlorination. It is also monitored to ensure and maintain quality.

You can use tap water in brushing your teeth and cooking. If you stay in the hotel, they used filtered water for better taste. And to save the environment from plastic bottles. The authorities advised everyone to avoid buying plastic bottles. You better save or refill your bottled water, instead of purchasing every single time.

Please be aware of the bottled water that you bought from a kiosk or small convenience stores. Ensure that the bottle is sealed.

Source of Water in Casablanca, Morocco

The tap water source in Casablanca originates from the groundwater of Maamoura and surface water of the Bou Regret Basin.

Morocco has embraced the privatization of the water sector. And there are several examples of private sector involvement, both in construction and service administration. Casablanca concession to serve 3.5 million inhabitants operate water, wastewater, and electricity.

Morocco is building an institutional structure for seawater desalination plants. The plant is located in the Casablanca-Settat region, will supply water to Casablanca. Due to increasing demand, and to reduce the deficit in industrial and agricultural seawater desalination is needed.



Some of the Local Convenience Stores in Casablanca

Carrefour Market
Carrefour Market
  • Carrefour Market
  • Supeco
  • Al Makam
  • Bioshop Casablanca
  • L’Epicurien
  • Casprix
  • Chez Hamid
  • Marché El Gharb
  • Leader Price
  • Weslane Saveurs
  • boulangerie pâtisserie araouaa
  • Boulanger Hakimi
  • Laiterie Rahma

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


Other links:

Is Durban Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$1.12

The tap water in Durban, South Africa, is safe to drink. The government assures the public the tap water in the country is safe for human consumption. Water is life. Therefore, it is a priority for the government to ensure that citizens and tourists served with safe drinking water. The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry recently stated that the country’s national standard compares well with the World Health Organisation‘s standards. It is common for Durbanites to drink water directly from the tap without any filtering devices.

Durban Tap Water
Durban, South Africa

The quality of potable water it produces consistently meets the requirements of the South African national drinking water quality standards. Umgeni Water uses conventional and advanced treatment processes that are bench-marked to the specifications of international organizations.

Domestic water supplies must conform to South African National Standards (SANS) 241 specifications, which are comparable to international drinking water quality guidelines.

Source of Water in Durban, South Africa

In Durban, tap water comes from surface water and other from groundwater. A new study, titled ‘Water Resources of South Africa 2012’ and aimed at updating the 2005 survey, got underway in April 2012. The study, being undertaken by a consortium led by consulting engineering firm SSI, seeks to quantify both the country’s surface and groundwater resources. The study will also outline minimum monitoring conditions, which the WRC says has become urgent. In light of the declining number of rain and streamflow gauges, as prevailing monitoring gaps are increasing uncertainty and undermining decision-making.

According to the 2030 Water Resources Group (WRG), established in 2008 by a consortium of business partners to contribute new insights about the ever-critical issue of water resource scarcity. The estimated demand for water in South Africa will reach 17.7-billion cubic meters in 2030. In comparison, the current supply will total only 15-billion cubic meters. And acutely restrained by low levels of highly seasonal rainfall – estimated at 50% of the global median. An inadequate number of aquifers, and a reliance on water transfers between basins and from other countries. A prime example being the LHWP, from which South Africa purchases almost 25% of its total water supply.

To deal with its water needs, South Africa is considering options other than just surface water and groundwater, including desalination. In fact, the DWA forecasts that up to 10% of the country’s urban water supply could come from desalination plants by 2030. The country’s biggest seawater desalination plant – in the seaside town of Mossel Bay, in the Western Cape – opened in November 2011. Its five-million-liter-a-day output is used entirely by synthetic fuels company PetroSA, the town’s biggest employer and the biggest user of water.



Some of the Local Convenience Stores in Durban

Sasol Delight Convenience Store
Sasol Bellair
  • Umbilo
  • Crescent
  • FreshStop
  • Zoop
  • CAFE 444
  • Select
  • Re-Fuel
  • Engen
  • Sasol Bellair
  • Total
  • uShaka Kwikspar
  • SPAR Express
  • Pick n Pay
  • Victoria Supermarket
  • BP
  • A H Cash & Carry
  • Usave

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


Other links:

Is Mogadishu Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?no
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?no
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.45

The tap water in Mogadishu, Somalia, is not safe for drinking. Due to the lack of sanitation, water is contaminated, and killers in Somalia. Waterborne diseases are a continuous threat to health. Only 30% of the country have access to clean water. You may boil water to use it for brushing and washing fruits and vegetables.

Mogadishu Tap Water
Mogadishu, Somalia

The danger of contamination raised from the water source to the point of use due to unhygienic practices. An example would be the use of dirty transportation and storage containers and a lack of knowledge.

The water in the country is HARD. The scale of hardness from the sample is 151 – 789 mg/l. Shows water contains a lot of minerals, like calcium and magnesium. Water with hardness higher than 200 mg/l considered inadequate, while water with an excess of 500 mg/l is unacceptable for most domestic purposes.

Source of Water in Mogadishu, Somalia

The primary source of water in Mogadishu, Somalia, is from groundwater. The groundwater is boreholes shallow wells and springs.

Boreholes are the most critical water sources in Somalia, as a bulk has water throughout the year and produces water when other sources dry out. The measurement of most boreholes in the country is in the range of 90m to 250m. Different depths can go to more than 400m.

The improvement of new groundwater sources in Somalia is filled with challenges, core among them having poor water quality. The more significant number of groundwater sources in the country have a saltiness scale above 2,000µS/cm, which is beyond the required standard for drinking water. Most of the shallow wells are also unprotected from pollutants, making them exposed to microbiological and other contamination.



Some of the Convenience Stores in Mogadishu

Midnimo Supermarket
Midnimo Supermarket
  • XNERO Qubaisi
  • Soomow
  • Alceyn Shop and Pharmacy
  • Midnimo Supermarket
  • Shakataa Supermarket
  • Rajab Supermarket and Pharmacy
  • Anteeno Supermarket And Food Store
  • Macruuf

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


Other links:

Is Marrakesh Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?-
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.57

The tap water in Marrakesh, Morocco, is chlorinated. It is perfectly safe to drink. Locals use tap water daily. However, they recommend drinking bottled water for tourists if they will only stay for a short period. You would not like to spoil your holidays. While your body develops immunization, bottled water is advised for the first few weeks. Whether you opt to drink filtered water or to acclimate yourself gradually, we recommend buying bottled water. Also, advise purchasing bottled water from the supermarket.

Marrakesh Tap Water
Marrakesh, Morocco

In 1995 a new water law was published. It gives a complete structure for integrated water control. New law organizes an efficient juridical tool to develop considerable efforts for water use. Same with mobilization to make them compatible with aspirations of socio-economic development.

Source of Water in Marrakesh, Morocco

The common source of tap water in Marrakesh and other city is the surface water and groundwater. Marrakech has the same resources. Morocco is divided into seven major river basins and several smaller basins. The seven significant basins from North to South are:

Atlas, Mountain
Atlas, Mountain
  • Loukkos River
  • Moulouya River
  • Sebou River
  • Bou Regreg River
  • Oum Er-Rbia River
  • Tensift River
  • Souss-Massa-Drâa basin

All these rivers begin in the Atlas Mountains, excluding the Loukkos River.

Marrakech manages its wastewater and no longer pulls its water from groundwater. The national office of fresh water (ONEP) established in 1972. And they are the primary producer of drinking water in Morocco. The national office controls the quality and quantity of both surface and groundwater. ONEP also in command of handling water-related emergencies. The wastewater treatment process initiates the use of traditional organic water treatment. Often referred to as activated sludge treatment. The method includes a pretreatment, primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment. In making the water ready for reuse.



Some of the Convenience Stores in Marrakesh

  • Superette Khairi
  • M’ bark
  • Biomedica Marrakech
  • Les Huitres Kandy
  • Tamarates Luxury dates
  • Mini Marché Majorelle
  • Victoria DRINK STORE
  • Total
  • Superette Koulchi
  • U Shop

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


Other links:

Is Accra Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?no
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?no
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.54

Tap water in Accra, Ghana, is not safe for drinking, and some parts lack access to improved sanitation. You should only drink water that is boiled or treated. The majority of families have no access to safe water and lack of upfront funds required to invest in their resolutions. Consequently, those living in poverty usually pay up to ten times more per liter for water service from private vendors than their middle-class counterparts connected to piped water services. Through investments, they can reduce the water cost to developed household water assets such as connections, rainwater harvesting equipment, wells, and latrines. Unfortunately, this requires up-front investments that, without access to financing, are unrealistic for most of these people.

Accra Tap Water
Accra, Ghana

Stick to drinking bottled water in Ghana and try to avoid the sachets of water sold on the street. Often contaminated water can found from the street. Officials advised that you should only buy sealed bottled water to any trusted convenience store or supermarket.

Due to drinking contaminated water, the third most usual reported diarrheal illness at health centers over Ghana. 25% of all deaths in children under the age of five attributed to diarrhea.

Source of Water in Accra, Ghana

Accra tap water originates mostly from surface water treated. And spread by the national water company with a minor and relatively unknown part from groundwater, extracted by individuals except in the southern parts of the city, closer to the sea. The GWCL treats around 61 and 70 million cubic meters per year. Respectively the Weija lake and the Volta River supply the city. Piped supply network covers 36% of the 200 km2 of the AMA municipal area. A third water source in use is groundwater.

The remaining area relies on secondary supply from small scale water vendors that fill up the gap between piped supply and public demand. Not all of the treated water supplied to the city is for human consumption. There are substantial physical losses within the distribution system. These aggravate the situation of water availability. Non-revenue losses comprise non-revenue water and material losses, amounting to 55% of total water supplied.

Accra‘s water administrators have a challenging task as they are covering a significant supply-demand gap. AVRL estimates that the supply in Accra meets only 50-60 % of the actual demand. The term real demand in itself is unclear – but it is assumed that 60% of the population survives on less than the free fundamental requirement.



Some of the Local Convenience Stores in Accra

Lara Mart Convenience Store
Lara Mart
  • Max Mart Express
  • Pamicor
  • Lara Mart
  • Koala
  • Saagar
  • Great Wall Supermarket
  • Novelty
  • Shoprite
  • Kayasbabe Mart
  • The Family Store
  • Maxmart 37

Estimated Price of Bottled Water

1.5-liter ₵3.00$0.54€0.49£0.42

Other links:

Is Lagos Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?no
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?no
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.51

Lagos, Nigeria tap water is not safe to drink. Plenty of water circled the city, but millions of natives in Africa’s most crowded city can not drink it. The coastal town that is bordered by a lagoon is in the throes of a water crisis. Only 1 in 10 people have access to water that the state utility produces. The rest of the residents rely on informal water sources. They either drilling their own boreholes to drink from or fetching water from lakes or rivers. Those that can afford it pay excessive amounts in local water vendors, who sell their wares in often-unsanitary jerry cans, or bottles and cellophane sachets.

 Lagos Tap Water
Lagos Lagoon

Lagos is surrounded by water from the Gulf of Guinea to the polluted Lagos Lagoon. The outline of adequate potable water to its over 21 million residents continues a huge challenge. The Lagos State Water Supply Master Plan predicts daily water demand in the city at 540 million gallons per day and production by the Lagos State Water Corporation at 210 MGD. Acute water shortage in the state has affected all aspects of daily life in Lagos, especially for low-income people. The terrible situation has jeopardized sanitation and public health. In addition, the high cost of sourcing water has further impoverished Lagos residents.

Source of Water in Lagos, Nigeria

The main source of tap water in Lagos is from the surface water. Since Lagos’s raw water in the lagoon is too polluted, the city gets its water from the Ogun River and the Owo River.

The oldest water treatment plant, found in Iju on the Ogun River, was established in 1910. It was developed in stages to 45m gallons per day. The different smaller plant was constructed at Ishashi on the Owo River in the 1970s. The largest plant so far was approved in 1991 in Adiyan with a capacity of 70m gallons per day. It also extracts from the Owo River. There are also seven mini-waterworks pulling from local sources with a combined capacity of 18m gallons per day. The Lagos Water Corporation declares that the water produced in the plant meets the highest standards and that it supplies safe drinking water adequately and even quantity to over 12.5 million people in Lagos State. People distrust tap water quality, due to polluted water in the distribution network.

Other residents drilled ground from their backyard to get a continues supply of tap water. Households also get water from many private shallow wells. Or families rely on street vendors, producing a thriving market for sachet water, purified water packaged in polyethylene pouches.

The water quality of Lagos tap water did not meet the World Health Organization (WHO), EU, and NIS standards. Sources are wells, boreholes, surface water, and pipe-borne water. Some property of water from resources is higher or lower than the set standards for potable water. The industrialization, high population density, rapid urbanization, and others, could result in serious health hazards.



Some of the Local Convenience Stores in Lagos

Grand Square Supermarket
Grand Square
  • Addide Supermarket
  • Yem-Yem Superstores
  • Delis Grocery Store
  • Best Choice
  • AF-Ricardo Synergy
  • Tonyson Pharmacy and Stores
  • The Kiosk
  • Grand Square Supermarket
  • Adiba Supermarket
  • domino
  • Trolleys Superstore
  • Fresh Mart
  • More Mart Store
  • AM to PM
  • Justrite Superstore

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


Other links:

Is Nairobi Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?no
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?no
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$1.21

Tap water in Nairobi, Kenya is not safe to drink without filtering or boiling the raw water. The government claim that water is safe. County water supplies water in many parts of Kenya. Most of this water may not have the purity levels required to protect you from stomach infections consistently. The quality of the water supply is usually inconsistent with the rainy season having the water with the most contamination.

Nairobi Tap Water
Nairobi, Kenya

Water and Sanitation in Nairobi face a problem that is common to a developing country that proliferates. The water supply is unable to meet fast-rising demand. Water is unstable even to the small majority who have a direct connection to tapped water. Different areas of the city receive water on specific days of the week, some for a few days and others for just a few hours.

There is currently around a 25% shortfall in supply to Nairobi homes, according to the city’s water provider. Also vital issues over the quality of the piped water, particularly in the city’s informal arrangements. Water from drains or sewage can seep into the supply due to the deterioration of pipes, and much of it is undrinkable, according to the World Health Organization.

Source of Water in Nairobi, Kenya

Nairobi tap water’s primary source of water is from surface water and groundwater. The Nairobi water utility relies exclusively on surface water to satisfy the growing city’s water needs. Service receives 94% of its water from the Tana River basin north of the town through three reservoirs:

  • Sasumua Dam (on the Chania River)
  • Thika Dam
  • Chania-B Dam

The Thika Dam is the largest, providing 225,000 m3/day. Water from the reservoirs is treated in two treatment plants, including the largest one in Ngethu. The remaining 6% originates from local sources:

  • Kikuyu Springs
  • Ruiru Dam

Both found in the Athi River Basin and whose water is managed in two smaller treatment plants. The spillway of the Sasumua Dam has been severely damaged during the 2003 El Nino floods. The weir was restored between 2009 and 2011 with financing from the French Development Agency.

The groundwater table has failed; in one well, it fell by 40 meters between 1958 and 1996. The standard depth of new wells in 2001 was 238 meters. In that year, 97 new wells were drilled because of a drought. Most wells are produced by industrial enterprises, hotels, farms for flower production in greenhouses, and private houses in parts of the city that receive an only intermittent supply. Groundwater is also used to water gardens and to supply tankers that resell the water. Many individual well owners are also related to the mains water supply system and use groundwater as a back-up supply. Natural groundwater quality is excellent.



Some of the Local Convenience Stores in Nairobi

Tuskys Convenience Store
  • My Shop
  • Oil Libya
  • Bonjour
  • Astrol
  • Vilies Shopping
  • Tuskys
  • Pantry & Provisions
  • Valencia Square
  • Onn The Way Supermarket
  • The Corner Shop
  • Stop & Shop
  • Eastmatt Supermarket
  • Karen Provision Stores
  • Carrefour

Estimated Price of Bottled Water


Other links:

Is Cairo Tap Water Safe to Drink? (2020)

Safe to drink?yes
Passed the WHO International Standard or the EPA Standard?yes
The estimated price of bottled water in USD(1.5-liter)$0.31

Tap water in Cairo, Egypt is safe to drink. According to the Holding Company for Water and Wastewater, water left their treatment plant is safe for drinking. Quality control adheres to the World Health Organization standard and also monitored by the health ministry.

Cairo Tap Water
Sphinx – Cairo Egypt

Just like ordinary cities, the problem with the water occurs when it travels from the treatment plant to your tap. Researches show that as much as 35 percent of Egypt’s residential water supply leaks into the ground, which says a big deal about the deterioration of city pipes.

Base on the taste, the water in Cairo, use more chlorine than the usual city. The water is hard, and as per taste, you may boil or keep it in the fridge for a few hours to lessen the chlorine taste. For a sensitive stomach, we recommend bottled water to avoid upsetting your tummy.

Source of Water in Cairo, Egypt

The Nile River is the number one source of tap water in Cairo and the whole of Egypt. The river provides 56.8 billion cubic meters of freshwater every year, which serves 97% of all renewable water sources in Egypt. The estimated rainfall in Egypt is at 18 mm or 1.8 billion m³ per year. Furthermore, Egypt has four different groundwater aquifers:

  • Nile Aquifer
  • Nubian Sandstone Aquifer
  • Moghra Aquifer
  • Coastal Aquifer

Egypt had 374 local wastewater treatment plants in 2012, handling an average of 10.1 million cubic meters per day. The size of Egypt’s wastewater treatment plants was more than 11 million cubic meters per day, serving more than 18 million people.



Some of the Local Convenience Stores in Cairo

On the Run Convenience Store
On the Run Convenience Store
  • Circle K
  • City Mart
  • Sabra Convenience Store
  • Nacita Autostop
  • On The Run
  • Al Safa
  • Smoking
  • Marina 1
  • Ross El Bahr
  • Habib El Kol Minimarket
  • El Qahera Center
  • Color

Estimated Price of Bottled Water

1.5-liter E£5.03$0.31€0.28£0.24

Other links: